Morphological alteration: aesthetic or functional dysfunction or mild malformation that alters the normal morphology of the bulb or the ocular adnexa.
Ocular adnexal: tutto ciò che delimita l’occhio: palpebre, ciglia, canali lacrimali, ecc.everything that defines the eye: eyelids, eyelashes, lacrimal canals, etc..
Anophthalmos: lack of the eyeball that can be congenital, traumatic or surgical.
Atrophy: iposviluppo or reduction of volume of an organ caused by its failure to use or its malfunction. In ophthalmology the bulb can become atrophic due to after-effects of trauma, penetrating injury or even pathological facts as retinal hemorrhage, panophthalmitis, etc.. or congenital causes.
Bilateral: that affects both eyes.
Biocompatible: constructed of a material compatible with human tissue, which does not produce that rejection or allergic reactions of the organism.
Blepharoptosis: also simply called ptosis, is almost complete with the lowering of the upper eyelid due to paralysis almost always levator muscle of the eyelid.
Tobacco pouch: evisceration surgery in which the sclera is closed with a suture through the front two wires that are pulled and knotted like a bag of tobacco.
Anoftalmica cavity: free eye socket of the bulb.
Cicatriziale: refers to a fabric that has a surface and an appearance derived from the healing of a wound or a suture preexisting.
Conformatore: provisional prosthesis generally white (no iris and veins painted) which applies immediately after enucleation in order to avoid the retraction of the cavity and keep in operation the eyelids.
Congenital: existing at birth and therefore not caused by disease or accidental events.
Contralateral: the bulb is opposite to that of which you speak. In the case of enucleation is also called "survivor".
Demolitive: refers to any surgical intervention. More demolitive this is the more important and wide the protetizzazione. Today we tend to intervene in the least demolitive can also cause a minor psychological trauma.
Diottrato: including diopter, ie, of the lens that allows the correct view. Is meant by "shell diottrato" a shell of coating used not only for aesthetic purposes but also to enable the vision to a bulb which still has the ability.
Ectropion: pathology that is to overthrow the edge of the eyelid and eyelashes outwards.
Edema: inflammatory process that takes over after a traumatic dependent tissues. It is manifested by swelling and redness strong, lasts a few days and is treated with anti-inflammatory drugs. It 's always present in the vicinity of a suture and after a trauma or injury.
Endoprotesi: prosthesis biocompatible material that allows the ocular prosthesis to move more. This system is typically applied in the operating room by the same surgeons who carried out enucleation or evisceration.
Endosclerale: Refers to a plant inserted into the sclera.
Enoftalmo: It looks like a sinking beneath the arch eyebrows. Found in most of the enucleation, is caused by physiological resorption of the fat after enucleation and orbital dall'afflosciamento levator palpebral. And 'the largest and most popular cosmetic defect which must fight against the prosthetist.
Entropion: pathology that is to overthrow the edge of the eyelid and the eyelashes inwards.
Enucleazione: (exenteratio bulbi) intervention consisting in the total removal of the eyeball. At the end of the intervention can be inserted into the cavity a plant for the mobility (endoprotesi).
Epitesi: prosthesis reconstructive large part of the face. It can affect the entire orbit and eyelids, or the ear or the nasal pyramid.
Evisceration: intervention that is emptying of the sclera practiced, when possible, to place dell'enucleazione. At the end of the intervention can be sutured to the sclera tobacco pouch or inside of it can be added to a plant for the mobility. It 'a less demolitive dell'enucleazione and which generally provides better movement of the prosthesis.
Exenteratio orbitae: intervention for removal of the eyeball, and the surrounding soft tissue of the eyelids often. It is a widely demolitive intervention that requires the application of reconstructive un'epitesi.
Fascia lata: tendon tissue taken from the iliac spine of the tibia and used for grafting in reconstructive techniques of the orbit.
Fibrovascolarizzazione: (colonizzazione) processo di integrazione dei tessuti dell’organismo con un materiale biocompatibile posto per molto tempo a loro contatto: consiste nella proliferazione dei vasi e dei fibroblasti che dai tessuti penetrano nel materiale estraneo. E’ il processo che caratterizza i moderni impianti in idrossiapatite.
Fornice: è la piega formata dalla palpebra in cui trova alloggiamento la protesi oculare. Per una buona protetizzazione è indispensabile che il fornice sia sufficientemente ampio.
Shell: nome gergale della protesi utilizzata per ricoprire bulbi atrofici che hanno perso la funzione visiva in seguito a patologie o fatti accidentali.
Idrossiapatite: materiale naturale microporoso di origine corallina, totalmente colonizzabile, utilizzato per la fabbricazione di protesi in varie branche della chirurgia. In chirurgia oftalmica è stata riprodotta anche sinteticamente.
Inert: così viene definito un materiale quando è ben tollerato dall’organismo, non produce reazioni allergiche e non varia la sua struttura chimico-fisica a contatto con i tessuti umani.
In situ: “sul posto”, cioè senza rimuovere ma agendo nella stessa sede. Così viene definito qualsiasi intervento o modifica ad un impianto protesico eseguito senza la rimozione dell’impianto stesso. Si definisce “in situ”  anche la corretta posizione “di lavoro” di qualsiasi impianto, protesi o lentina.
Intraocular: chethat resides inside the eyeball.
Intraorbitale: that resides inside the orbit.
Intrascleral: that resides inside the sclera.
Ipertrofia: Consiste in un anormale ingrossamento del tessuto interessato, generalmente accompagnato da edema. E’ frequente sintomo di processi infiammatori in atto.
Iposviluppato: sviluppato al di sotto della norma, atrofico.
Limbus: zona circolare dell’occhio corrispondente alla fine dell’iride ed all’inizio della sclera.
Maxillofacciale: branca dell’otorinolaringoiatria che studia il blocco orbito - nasale - mascellare con particolare riguardo alla ricostruzione delle pareti osteo-cartilaginee in seguito ad incidenti o patologie.
Microftalmo: bulbo fortemente atrofico, normalmente del diametro di pochi millimetri ed il più delle volte di origine congenita a causa del mancato sviluppo del bulbo in età fetale.
Microporoso: si dice di un materiale dalla superficie ricca di pori che permettono la traspirazione dell’aria o la fibrovascolarizzazione dei tessuti.
Neovascolarizzazione: formazione di nuovi vasi sanguigni in un tessuto generalmente cicatriziale, dopo un intervento, un trapianto od un innesto chirurgico con materiale biocompatibile.
Ocularista: (or protesista) manufacturer and applicator of ocular prostheses.
Oculoplastica: Plastic surgery reconstruction of the ocular adnexa (orbit, eyelids, etc.).
Odontocheratoprotesi: graft in the dentin of a bulb that has been practiced keratotomy. The graft allows the viewing but leaves the bulb in the aesthetic condition greatly compromised so that must be applied on it a lens cosmetic coating.
Eyehole: bone in the region which contains the eyeball, the conjunctival sac, the oculomotor muscles, the optic nerve and its blood vessels.
Ortoforia: condition of correct centering of the bulb. The abnormal conditions are endoforia or convergent strabismus (when the bulb looks toward the nose), the esoforia or divergent strabismus (eye outward), the iperforia (look up) and ipoforia (look down).
Perilimbare: is defined as the area in the immediate vicinity of the limbus.
PMMA: (polimetilmetacrilato) transparent plastic material generally used for the construction of rigid contact lenses, shells, endoprosthesis, etc.. It is well tolerated by the body.
Aftermath: consequences of an illness or an accident.
Protetizzazione: act of the pack and apply the prosthesis.
PTFE: (politetrafluoretilene) colonizzabile material used in different branches of surgery. In ophthalmology is used as a tunic coating the endoprosthesis Ophtimplant.
Radiopaco: body that can be detected by radiographic plate. There are some materials that are not radiopaque and therefore are not visible to X-rays.
Retrazione: phenomenon of slow and progressive atrophy that affects the cavity anoftalmica and all annexes after the intervention of enucleation. The use of this part in shaping averts danger. It 'a good idea to never leave the cavity anoftalmica without implants even for a few hours since the retraction is established very quickly.
Reconstruction: in surgery are defined as those interventions that reconstruct an organ or a body part disfigured or rendered inoperable by the aftermath of a disease or an accident. In ophthalmology eyelid reconstructions are frequent and those of the cavity, especially after burns or interventions widely demolition.
Rima palpebrale: is the design of the front edge of the eyelids seen with the eye open. The proper maintenance of the design Rimale is an important condition for the success of the aesthetic protetizzazione.
Sacco congiuntivale: is defined so that the entire conjunctiva surrounds the cavity and the bulb.
Simblefaron: adhesions between the bulb and eyelids due to discontinuity on the surface of the bulbar conjunctiva that "sticks" to the palpebral conjunctiva. There are special shaping that prevent contact between the parties and which promote the regrowth of the palpebral conjunctiva. The bulbar conjunctiva, however, can only be restored by surgery.
Subatrofia: condition of atrophy of the bulb even more pronounced than in the standard.
Fabrics of coating: conjunctival or connective tissues that are used in an intervention in order to cover a plant or to coat a suture internal.
Traumatismo: action traumatic repeated and persistent. The term often refers to the action of certain types of endoprosthesis on the tissues of coating which in the long run can cause ulcers and the subsequent expulsion of the plant.